Manufacturing Industries – II Term

You will learn this lesson both in point wise summary and in the Question and Answer Format

Importance of Manufacturing Industry

• Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing.

Manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of development in general and economic development in particular mainly because–

•  Manufacturing industries not only help in modernising agriculture, which forms the backbone of our economy, they also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.

•  Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and poverty from our country. This was the main philosophy behind public sector industries and joint sector ventures in India. It was also aimed at bringing down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.

• Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings in much needed foreign exchange.

• Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of furnished goods of higher value are prosperous. India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries as quickly as possible.

Q.1. ‘Agriculture and industry move hand in hand.’ Elucidate.


‘Agriculture and industry are complimentary to each other.’ Justify the statement.

Ans. A close relationship exists between agriculture and manufacturing industries. Both of them complement each other.

Each of them serves as market for goods produced by the other and in the process raises demand for each other’s goods.

For example, the agro-based industries, like textiles, sugar, etc., depend upon agriculture for raw materials. These industries have given a major boost to agriculture by raising their demand and hence, productivity. Manufacturing industries sell the products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, agricultural machinery and tools, etc., to the farmers. Agriculture serves as their market and effects their development.

These inputs from industries assist agriculturists in increasing productivity as well as have made the production processes very efficient.



Iron and Steel Industry

Watch the video of production of steel from start to finish

1. Why is iron and steel industry termed as basic industry?

Ans. Basic  or  key  industries  supply  their  products  as  raw  materials  to  other  industries  to manufacture their goods.

Iron and steel industry is termed as a basic industry because

(a) it produces iron and steel which in turn is used for manufacturing machines, tools and equipment. Machinery and tools are basic for any manufacturing process. Thus, iron and steel industry plays a key role in the development of any manufacturing industry and agriculture.

(b) iron and steel industry provides raw materials for heavy engineering, automobiles, ship building, manufacturing of railway engines, locomotives, etc. The development of these industries is dependent on the supply of iron and steel.

Many  of  the  items  used  by  us  in  our  daily  life,  from  a  tiny  nail  to  big  railway locomotives, are made of iron.

2. Describe four physical and four human factors that affect the location of an industry.

Ans. Industrial locations are complex in nature. They are influenced by a number of factors that determine their location in region.

The physical factors that influence that location of industries are as follows :

(a) Availability of raw materials — Raw materials for industries range from agricultural products to minerals. Raw material required for the industry must be available cheaply and at close range or at well-linked places. In case of industries using bulky raw materials like iron, bauxite, etc., the ideal location is near the sources of raw materials.

(b) Power resources — Power, energy or fuel is essential for the working of any industry, for running machineries and as fuel for the furnaces and smelters. So, power resources like coal and electricity must be available in abundance in the vicinity of the site chosen for the industry.

(c) Water — Water is needed in abundance by almost all industries, e.g. cotton and jute textiles for processing, cleaning and cooling of machineries. So many industries are located near rivers and other water bodies.

(d) Favourable climate — Climate affects production process, for example, humid climate is suitable for spinning of cotton yarns. The industry must be located in an area where the climate does not damage the raw materials or finished products.

Human factors influencing the location of industries are :

(a) Labour — Cheap and efficient labour must be available in the region surrounding the industry for proper functioning of the industry.

(b) Capital — Industries require finances in large amounts. For setting up an industry in a chosen site, large amount of cash guarantees and banking facilities are required.

(c) Market — The goods produced must have a market for their sale. The market influences the demand as well as type of goods produced in a region.

(d) Transport facilities — Well-linked road, railways or waterways must be available for transfer of raw materials and manufactured products to and from the industrial area.

3. How do industries pollute the environment?


How does industrial pollution affect the environment?

Ans. Pollution is a negative effect of industrialisation. It results in degradation of the environment and affects human health, animals, plants and the atmosphere as a whole. It contributes to major environmental problems like land degradation, water scarcity, health hazards and, on a larger scale, global warming and climate change.

Industries are responsible for four types of pollution, namely, air, water, land and noise. Air pollution is caused by presence of high proportion of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide, dust, sprays, mist and smoke in the atmosphere due to emission from industrial units. Smoke emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants and burning of fossil fuels in big and small factories that ignore pollution norms cause enormous pollution.

Toxic gas leaks from factories are extremely hazardous.

Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluents discharged into rivers and other water bodies.

The main culprits in this regard are paper, chemical textiles and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries. They let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury, pesticides, fertilisers, synthetic chemicals with carbon, plastics and rubber, etc., into water bodies. They turn big and small rivers into toxic streams.

Dumping of wastes especially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging, salts and garbage renders the soil useless due to land pollution. Rainwater percolates to into the soil carrying these pollutants and contaminates ground water.

Noise pollution is by industrial and construction activities, machinery and factory equipments, generators, saws and pneumatic and electric drills.

4. Briefly describe any four measures of controlling industrial pollution.


Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industries.

Ans. Careful  planning  of  industries,  better  design  equipment  and  better  operation  of  the equipment can prevent pollution to a great extent. Some measures to control industrial pollution are

(a) Restricting use of fossil fuels can reduce smoke. Air pollution can be reduced by reduction of particulate matter, aerosol emission in the air by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.

(b) Water pollution can be controlled by (i) minimising use of freshwater by reusing and recycling (ii) Treatment of hot water effluents before releasing them in rivers and other water bodies. These include mechanical, biological, chemical and physical processes.

(c) Land pollution can be controlled by collection of wastes, dumping and disposing the wastes in filling areas and recycling the wastes.

(d) Machinery and equipment and generators can be fitted with silencers or redesigned to make them energy efficient and to reduce noise.

5.  Why did the traditional cotton textile industry of India receive a setback during the colonial period?

Ans. The traditional cotton textile industry of India suffered a setback during the colonial period because of competition from mill-made cloth from England. In England cotton textiles were produced in large quantities with the help of powerloom. The surplus was sold in India for profit as India was then a colony of England. Mill-made cloth was cheaper on account of large scale production. On the other hand, our traditional textiles used ancient techniques like hand- spinning and handloom weaving. Hence, its production could not compete with mill-made cloth of England.

6. What is the ideal location for sugar mills? Why this industry is ideally suited to the cooperative sector?

Ans. Sugarcane, the raw material used in sugar industry, is bulky, and its sugar content reduces in haulage and time lag between reaping and sugar production. Therefore, the ideal location for sugar mills is in close proximity of sugarcane producing areas.

The sugar industry is seasonal in nature and so is ideally suited to the cooperative sector. For entire year the farmers are engaged in producing sugarcane as it is an annual crop. When the crop is reaped, the farmers pool together their resources, set up mills within the sugarcane producing areas and produce sugar. The seasonal nature of the sugar industry is combated by setting up cooperative where farmers share the profits and losses.

7. Which factors are responsible for shifting of sugar mills to southern and western states? Mention two challenges faced by the industry.

Ans. In recent years, there is a tendency among the sugar mills to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states, especially Maharashtra because the cane produced here has higher sucrose content and yields greater quantity of sugar. (ii)  the cooler climate here ensures longer crushing season as it prevents drying of cane. (iii)  cooperatives are more successful in these states.

Two challenges faced by sugar industry are :

(a)  Seasonal nature of the industry.

(b)  Old and inefficient methods of production.

8. Why does the north eastern part of the Peninsular Plateau region have the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries?

Ans. The north-eastern part of the peninsular plateau, the Chhotanagpur plateau region, has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries because of the following reasons:

(a)  The region has rich reserves of iron ore of mainly hematite variety. Availability of good quality of iron ore at low cost provides ideal location for setting up of iron and steel industries.

(b)  High grade coking coal is available from the coalfields of Jharkhand and West Bengal.

(c)  High quality manganese and limestone is available in proximity.

(d)  The surrounding densely populated region supply cheap labour.

(e)  The vast growth potential in the home market is an additional advantage. Local markets for the finished goods are provided by other industries using steel as raw material. Good linkage of roads and railways helps in distribution of finished products all over the country.

As iron and steel is a heavy industry, availability of raw materials like iron ore, coking coal and limestone, all of which are bulky, as well as market within easy reach has provided the region ideal location for setting up of iron and steel industries.

9. What are the prime factors in location of aluminium smelting industries? Where are the main aluminium smelting plants of the country located?

Ans. The prime factors in location of aluminium smelting industries are as follows :

(i)  Assured source of raw material, bauxite, at minimum cost as it is a bulky material at 4 to 6 tonnes of bauxite are required to manufacture 1 tonne of aluminium.

(ii) 18600 kwh of electricity is required per ton of ore for smelting of aluminium. Hence, regular supply of power is another important factor for location of the industry.

Orissa produces about 45 per cent of the India’s bauxite. Hence, aluminium smelting plants are located in Orissa. Also, the Hirakud dam provides cheap hydroelectricity for the development of the aluminium industry in the state.

West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu, are other states where aluminium smelting plants are located. INDAL, HINDALCO, MALCO, NALCO and Aluminium Corporation of India are names of the major smelting plants.

10. What is the ideal location for setting up a cement factory? In which state does cement industry have strategically located plants? Write about the present position of cement industry in India.

Ans. Cement industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum. Heavy costs are involved in the haulage of the raw materials. Hence, economically, the ideal location for cement factories is near the sources of raw materials.

Apart from raw materials, coal and electric power is needed to provide energy for working of the plants.

Nearness to rail transportation for supplying the bulky, finished products to the market is another important locational factor.

The cement industry has strategically located plants in Gujarat that have suitable access to the market in the Gulf countries. Dwarka, Porbandar, Veraval, Sikka and Bhavnagar, where cement factories are set up in this state, lie along the coast. This facilitates the export of cement to the Gulf countries in the west.

Decontrol of price and distribution since 1989 and some other policy reforms led the cement industry to make rapid strides in capacity, process, technology and production. As a result, now there are 128 large cement plants and 332 mini cement plants in India, producing a variety of cement.

Improvement in the quality has provided the cement industry a ready market in East Asia, Middle East and Africa along with the large demand in the domestic market. The industry is doing well in terms of production. Its export is providing the country with substantial foreign exchange.

11. What is the contribution of industry to national economy of India? Compare it with the East-Asian countries. What is the desired growth and present position of industry in GDP?    

Ans. In India, the share of manufacturing sector has stagnated at 17 per cent of GDP – out of total of 27 per cent for the industry. This is much lower in comparison to some East Asian economics, where it is 25 to 35 per cent.

The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12 per cent per annum.

12. Mention any two challenges faced by the jute industry in India. State any one step taken by the government to stimulate its demand.

Ans. The two important challenges faced by the jute industry in India are as follows:

(i) stiff competition in the International market from synthetic substitutes.

(ii) Challenges of competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.

(iii) Government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging is one step on this line.

13. Mention any two factors that have contributed to a healthy growth of the automobile industry in India ? Name two centres where this industry is located.

Ans.  (i) The introduction of new and contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market.

(ii) Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global developments.

(iii) The two centres of automobile industry are Jamshedpur and Gurgaon.

14. What are the three main reasons for shifting of the sugar mills to Maharashtra in recent years.

Ans. Three main reasons are as follows:

(i) The cane produced has higher sucrose content.

(ii) The cooler climate which ensures a longer crushing season.

(iii) The cooperatives are more successful in the southern states.

15. What is natural gas? What are its advantages? Name one region of India where its reserves are found. 

Ans. Natural  gas  is  an  important  clean  energy  resource  found  in  association  with  or  without petroleum.  It  is  used  as  a  source  of  energy  as  well  as  industrial  raw  materials  in  the petrochemical industry.

A large reserve of Natural gas has been discovered in the Krishna-Godavari basin of Andhra Pradesh.

16. What are software technology parks? State any two points of significance of Information Technology industry in India?

Ans. Software  technology  parks  provide  single  window  services  and  high  data  communication facility to software experts. The two significant points of IT industries are as follows:

(i) It generates huge employment. Up to March 31, 2005, it employed over one million persons, 30 percent of which are women.

(ii) The  industry  has  been  a  major  foreign  exchange  earner  through  growing  Business processes outsourcing (BPO) sources.

17. Suggest any three measures to reduce the industrial pollution of freshwater resources.

Ans.  (i) Minimising  use  of  water  for  processing  by  reusing  and  recycling  it  in  two  or  more successive stages.

(ii) Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements.

(iii) Treatment of hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.

18. Mention any six factors responsible for the location of jute mills in the Hugli basin.

Ans.  (i) Proximity of the jute producing areas.

(ii) Cheap water transport facilities.

(iii) Good  network  of  railways,  roadways  and  waterways  to  facilitate  movement  of  raw materials to the mills.

(iv) Abundant water for processing raw jute.

(v) Cheap labour from West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.

(vi) Bank, insurance and port facilities for export of jute goods.

19. Distinguish between an integrated steel plant and a mini steel plants stating three points of distinction.         

Ans.  (i) An Integrated steel plant is larger than Mini Steel Plant.

(ii) Mini steel plant use steel scrap and sponge iron while integrated steel plant use basic raw materials ie iron ore for making steel.

(iii) Mini steel plant produces mild and alloy steel while integrated steel plant produces only steel.

20.. Explain any three problems faced by cotton textile industries in India. 

Ans. Three problems faced by cotton textile industries in India are as follows :

(i) power supply is erratic and machinery are back dated.

(ii) Output of labour is low.

(iii) Facing stiff competition with the synthetic fibre industry.

(iv) Long staple cotton still has to be imported.

21. Explain any three ways to control environmental degradation caused by industries.

Ans.  (i) Minimising  use  of  water  for  processing  by  reusing  and  recycling  it  in  two  or  more successive stages.

(ii) Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements.

(iii) Treatment of hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.

22. How do industries create thermal and noise pollution? Mention their consequences.

Ans. Hot water from factories when is allowed to flow into rivers and ponds is caused thermal pollution. Thermal pollution would affect aquatic life greatly. Industrial and constructional activates by huge machinery create unwanted sound of intolerable nature which impaired human ears and nervous breakdown.

23. Distinguish between agro based and mineral based industries. Also give two examples of each.

Ans. This is  self-explanatory. Agro based industries depend upon Agricultural products while mineral based industries depends upon mineral resources. Cotton and jute are the example of agro based industry while Iron and steel, alluminium are mineral based.

24. Why is iron and steel industry called as the basic and heavy industry?    

Ans. Iron and steel industry is called basic heavy industry because its

(i) Large scale of operation both input and output.

(ii) Its output i.e., steel is used for making machinery, construction, defence etc. purposes as basic raw materials. Therefore it is called basic industry.

25. Why is cotton textile industry the largest industry in India today? Give any three reasons.


Ans.  (i) Cotton textile industry contributes 14 percent of the total industrial production.


(ii) It  provides  employment  to  35  million  persons  directly  –  the  second  largest  after agriculture.


(iii) It earns foreign exchange of about 24.6 percent (4 percent of GDP).

26. How does the  industrial  pollution  degrade  the  environment  ?  Explain with three examples.

Ans. The three types of pollution caused by industries are air pollution, water pollution and Noise pollution. (i) Air pollution through spewing of smoke from industry pollute the air with sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. (ii) Industrial wastes and effluents discharged through industries into rivers and ponds cause water pollution (iii) Besides, industrial and construction activities generates noise pollution.

27. Explain three major challenges faced by sugar industry in India.

Ans. Major challenges faced by sugar industry include the seasonal nature of the industry, old in efficient methods of production; transport delay in reaching cane to factories and the need to maximize the use of bagasse.

28. Why  is  fertiliser industry  almost  widespread  throughout  the  country  ?  Give  three reasons.      

Ans.  (i) Spread of fertilizer industry rests on raw materials ie, coal, petroleum and natural gas and hence it is located near to it.

(ii) After Green Revolution it is expanded to many parts of the country where agricultural prosperity is achieved.

(iii) Fertilizer  can  be  transported  through  pipelines  to  far  off  places  which  causes decentralization.

29.  Explain  any  three  factors  responsible  for  the  location  of  cotton  textile  industry  in Mumbai and Ahmedabad.

Ans.  (i) Availability of raw cotton, market, transport including accessible port facilities (ii) cheap labour and (iii) moist climate has caused the concentration of cotton textile industries in Mumbai and Ahmedabad region.

30. Mention any three objectives of National Jute Policy, 2005.

 Ans.  (i) Increasing productivity.

(ii) Improving quality.

(iii) Ensuring good prices to the jute farmers and enhancing the yield per Hectare.

31. Where was the first cement plant set up in India?  Explain any two reasons for the fast expansion of cement industry in India.

Ans.  (i) In Chennai in 1904.

(ii) Decontrol of price and distribution since 1989 and other policy reforms.

(iii) Rapid growth of construction activities all over India.

32. “The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries”. Elaborate the statement.

Ans. Resource utilization cannot be made without manufacturing industry. Manufacturing industry transforms raw materials into finished products which added value to it. Countries having a good number of manufacturing industries can able to utilize resources more fruitfully and are therefore they considered as advanced country. India’s contribution to manufacturing industry is 17 per cent as compared to 30 percent for Japan and 25 percent for France respectively.

33. Explain any three factors which are responsible for decentralisation of cotton industry in India.

 Ans.  (i) Cater to the needs of large domestic markets.

(ii) Cotton growing areas spreaded over many new areas – Rajasthan, Punjab.

(iii) Decentralized to provide scope of incorporating traditional skills and design weaving in cotton silk, zari and embroidery etc.

34. Discuss the role of NTPC in paving the way to control environmental degradation.

Ans. NTPC is a major power providing corporation in India. It has ISO certification for EMS (Environmental Management System) 14001. The corporation has a proactive approach for preserving the natural environment and resources like water, oil, gas and fuels in places where it is setting up power plants. This is achieved through the following methods :

(a)  Optimum  utilisation  of  equipment  adopting  latest  techniques  and  upgrading  existing equipment.

(b)  Minimising waste generation by maximising ash utilisation.

(c)  Providing green belts for nurturing ecological balances and encouraging afforestation.

(d)  Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management.

(e)  Ecological monitoring reviews and online database management for all its power stations.